The “Collective Black Physicians’ Statement” on the death of Mr. George Floyd ​

The "Collective Black Physicians' Statement"
on the death of Mr. George Floyd ​

The following statement is written by a collective group of almost 20,000 highly-trained Black U.S. physicians, physician trainees and healthcare professionals. First, we would like to express our sincerest condolences to the family of Mr. George Floyd. We mourn for your loss and seek to ensure justice is served in accordance with the law. With this statement, we seek to accomplish two tasks: 1.) to educate the community, including the media, about the preliminary findings of Mr. George Floyd’s autopsy; 2.) to challenge the autopsy results published by Dr. Andrew M. Baker of the Hennepin County Medical Examiner Office and the State of Minnesota. 

On May 25, 2020, Minneapolis Police Department Officers Derek Chauvin, Tou Thao, Thomas K. Lane, and J. Alexander Kueng responded to a call placed by Cup Foods, a South Minneapolis grocery store where Mr. George Floyd allegedly used a counterfeit 20-dollar bill to purchase a pack of cigarettes. Nearby surveillance video captured Mr. Floyd being escorted by police from his vehicle to a police cruiser across the street without overt resistance. Additional video footage from local community members also captured the fatal encounter. As Officer Derek Chauvin kneeled on Mr. Floyd’s neck, Officers Lane and Kueng assisted by kneeling on Mr. Floyd’s legs and torso while Officer Thao kept spectators away. For 8 minutes and 46 seconds, Mr. Floyd begged for relief until he became unresponsive. Emergency medical technicians later arrived at the scene to transport Mr. Floyd to the Hennepin County Medical Center, where he was pronounced dead. 

Preliminary findings from the autopsy were included in the criminal complaint released by the Hennepin County Attorney’s Office in the arrest of Officer Derek Chauvin. The preliminary results of the physical autopsy were relayed by a Minnesota special agent purporting to describe the medical examiner’s preliminary findings. The report merely suggests there was lack of trauma to the neck, including physical injuries, contusions, soft tissue hemorrhage, lacerated vessels, or a fractured hyoid or larynx. Such findings may be seen in some cases of blunt force or abrupt trauma to the neck causing asphyxia or lack of oxygen supply to tissues and organs, leading to death. It is widely understood by medical professionals that asphyxiation can occur without physical findings. Moreover, the preliminary findings do not consider the decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery to Mr. Floyd’s brain, which he likely endured from compression of his neck. Such alterations would have thereby caused a decrease in his level of consciousness and his brain’s ability to adequately signal him to breathe. 

Lastly, Mr. Floyd’s ability to perform the proper mechanics of ventilation, namely chest wall rise and fall with inhalation and exhalation, were undoubtedly compromised by the presence of the Officers Lane and Kueng kneeling onto his torso. While it is possible that Mr. Floyd had underlying chronic medical issues such as coronary artery disease and hypertension, these preexisting conditions did not directly contribute to his death on May 25, 2020 while in the custody of the Minnesota Police Department. We assert that the most probable cause of death of Mr. George Floyd was the physical occlusion of his airway, decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery to his brain, and restricted ventilation due to the physical restraint afflicted by Officers Chauvin, Lane and Kueng. 

In addition to the physical autopsy performed, examination of laboratory evidence obtained during the autopsy, as well as medical records for the decedent, contribute to the final determination of cause and manner of death. Any mention of potential intoxicants of which Mr. Floyd may have been under the influence is meritless at this stage of the physical autopsy examination. In a medicolegal autopsy, the results of a urinary toxicology screen are often inaccurate. All substances must be detected and confirmed in blood and/or particular organs before it can be said that an individual was intoxicated and that death is a complication of that toxicity. 

The findings released in the criminal complaint appear to be preliminary and are not a comprehensive final autopsy report. We are concerned that current information released from this report fails to objectively state the medical findings present during the physical autopsy and makes assumptions before many of the confirmatory tests and exam results have been obtained. Furthermore, it is incumbent on the media to clearly state all sources and the intent of releasing incomplete medical information. The language used in the citing of the preliminary findings is misleading to the general public and inappropriately casts doubt on the character of Mr. Floyd and the circumstances surrounding the role of Officer Chauvin in his death. 

As Black physicians in the U.S., we take our professional responsibilities and duties seriously. We want to ensure that the preliminary autopsy findings released in the criminal complaint are appropriately explained to the public who may have limited understanding of medical terminology and practices. Trivial error or misinterpretation of medical information can have devastating consequences. We reject conclusions drawn from the preliminary autopsy findings. Again, we assert that the most probable cause of death of Mr. George Floyd was the physical occlusion of his airway, decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery to his brain, and restricted ventilation, all due to the physical restraint aided by Officers Chauvin, Lane and Kueng of the Minnesota Police Department. We will continue to scrutinize the medicolegal documents presented in this case to ensure that ethical and unbiased information has been collected independently from law enforcement, prosecutors, and media. Mr. George Floyd, like any other American citizen, deserves justice. 

Statement of support from our Black veterinarian colleagues As Black veterinarians, we play an integral role in contributing to the mental health and well-being of our black community, through the preservation of the human-animal bond and as first line defenders against zoonotic disease. Black representation is vital in all aspects of healthcare, including veterinary medicine. We wholeheartedly stand behind the statement released by our Black physician colleagues.

Physician Organizers

Derica N. Sams, MD
Sadé McKenzie, MD
Tamara Floyd, MD
Ogechukwu Eze, MD, MHS
Angela N. Baldwin, MD, MPH
Sasha Breland, MD
Ogar Ogar, MD

Veterinarian Organizers

Situnyiwe T. Walker, DVM
Marcy McKeithen, DVM

Editor

Mrs. Tina Moore, Director of Advanced Academics

Contributors

Nataisia Terry MD, MBA
Adesola Oyewole, DO
Paula Magee, MD, MPH
Kristy L. Cromblin, MD
Chemen M. Neal, MD, FACOG, FAMW
Funmilola Oladini, MD, MBA
Stephanie Agyemang, MD
Ashley NJ Clark, MS1
Valerie Lemaine, MD, MPH
Nnamdi Orakpo, MD, PhD
Robert D. Wardlow II, MD, PhD
Jeanene Smith, MD
Nebiyu Shukur, MD
Gray Derwin, MD, FACOG
Kimberly Bernard, MD
Janel Gordon, MD
Jamira T. Jones, MD
Darnell Blackmon, MD
Ebony Onianwa, MS3
Rhonia Gordon, MD
Oyeyimika Oyekanmi, DO
Nardos Temesgen, MD
Matthew Villavasso, PharMD
Amber J. Navy, MD
Bretonya Johnson, MD
Adys Mendizabal, MD
Danielle Beharie, DO, MPH
Christopher Obinna Samuel, MS3
Susie A. Turkson, MS3
Karla Martin, MS2
Briana Mucci-Jackson, MS2
Ifechukwude Ikem, MD
Trecia Henriques, MD, JD
Ariana Martin, DO
Carisa Hines Moore, MD
Monique McDermoth, MD, MPH
Soenda Norman, MD
Karis Browder, MD
Dontre’ M. Douse, MD
Jamie Mosher, MD
Vania J. Singleterry, MD
Nwadiogo Ejiogu, MD, MA
Onyinyechi Eke, MD
Amber Hardeman, MD, MBA, MPH
Ginger N. Unegbu, DDS
Tamara Brooks, MD
Oluwakemi Ogundipe, MD, MPH
Chika Esochaghi, MD
Michele Kautzman, MD
Melita Williams, MD, ABFM
Darion L. Showell, DO
LaWonda Canzater, MS4
Elisa Birnbaum, MD
Yusuf Mathai, MD, MPH
KMarie Reid, MD
Darian Harris, OMS4
Chinasa Nwankwo, MD
Kiara C. Smith, MS4
Cierra Allen, MD
Oloruntosin Adeyanju, MD
Ruth Arumala, DO
Laticia Stewart, MD
Juliet Okoroh, MD
Rashida Clarke, OD
Vovanti Jones, MD
Jamaan Kenner, MD
Nicole Oakman, MD
Reona Broadwater, MD
Daniela Bennett, MS4
Jennea Correia, MD
Evelyn Nelson, MD
Nykia Burke-Bray, MD, MPH
Naomi Robertson, MD, PharMD

Gina M Blocker, MD
Adrienne Johnson, MS3
Rita Aidoo, DO
Erica Sails, MD
Lauren McHenry, MS3
Davon L. Thomas, MD
Arielle Freeman, MS3
Michele Blackledge, DDS
Candace L. Clinton, MD, MBA
Chevaughn Wellington, MS4
Alexis K. Okoh, MD
Angelica Emeakoroha, DPM
Anna Ayum, DO, MBS
April Adams Szafran, MD, PhD
Marissa Moultrie, MD
Lauren K. Creecy, PharmD, MPH
Margaret Ridge, MD
Kortnee Y. Roberson, MD
Gladyne Confident, MD
Dominique Cameron, MS1
Amanda Dupre, DO
Tolulope Akinbo, PharmD, MPH, BCPS
Ashley Rhoades, PMHNP
Tarshree Sawyer, MD
Phyllis J. Gee, MD
Kelsey N. McLeod, MD
Jessica Reyes-Peterson, MD, MPH
Brittny Randolph, MS4
Khadijah Breathett, MD, MS, FACC, FAHA, FHFSA
Peyton Johnston, MS3
William Muhammad, MS4
Avril Ano, DO
Erica Mailler, MD
Rachel Banks, MD
Lukas Kahsay, MD
Tomi Seriki, DO, MPH
Donald C. Okoye, MD
Jerrilyn Jones, MD, MPH
Innocent Akujuobi, MD
Charisse C. Graham, MD
Bethel Essaw, MD
Joye Fordham, MD
Arthur A. Griffiths, MD, FACEP
Jennifer Alexander, MD
Cedrina L. Calder, MD, MSPH
Justin Garvin, MS3
Onome Oboh, MS4
Kathia Raphael, MD
Olubukola Toyobo, MS4
Nita D. Gombakomba, MS3
Kimberly Gillens, MD
Kimberly Cruz, MD
James Osei-Sarpong, MD
Y. Sokoya, MD
Thandiwe C. Gray, MD
Jennifer Jolivert, MS3
Lisa Tharler, DO
Donnell McDonald, MD
Jeffrey C. Okonye, MD
Rico Beuford, MS4
Djana Harp, MD
Masrai Williams, MS4
James Hayes, DVM
Jasmine M. Nolan, MS, DVM
Amen I Ogunmekan, PharmD, BCPP
Chinwe Unegbu, MD
Zarinah Hud, DO
Fredrick Ntumy, MD
Aaron Pettyjohn, MD
Shatima D. Seward, MD
Mariam Ali-Mucheru, MD
Vanessa Nzeh, MD
Britt Gayle, MD/MPH
Gerard F. Acloque Jr., MD
Romila Mushtaq, MD
Robert Drummond, MD, PhD
Laurenie G. Louissaint, MD
Tolulope Adeyemo, MD
Dawn Johnson Leonard, MD, FACS Frank Tillman, PharMD
Mary E Fleming, MD, MPH
Stacy Sachiko Hull, MD
Dionne Adaora Ibekie, MD
Emmanuella Ngozi Asabor, MD, PhD
Lisa Watts, MD
Kristi Johnson, DO
Deashia McAlpine, MS2
Kenneth Williams, MS3
Evelyn A. Darius, MD
Valerie Takyi, MD
Stacey Murray-Taylor, MD
Millicent Okereke, MD
Kalilah Allen-Harris, MD
Ogonna Iwuora, MD
Ajayi Scott-Robinson, MS3
Anika Lucas, MD, MTS
Janice Dara, MD
Danielle J. Johnson, MD, FAPA
Nnenna S. Ezeh, MD
Shandi Fuller, MD, MPH
Richard E. Cook Jr., MD
Brittney N. Newby, MD, PhD
Andy-Bleck Nwancha, MS3
Barbara Chukwu, MS4
Staceyann Smith, MD, MPH
Phoebe Griffin, MD
Brandon Dixon, MS4
Whitney R. Smith, MD
Michele Lagarde-May, MD
Shamarick Blue, MD
Tolulope Akinshola, MS1
Jasmin Nwachokor, MD
Monique G. Hedmann, MD, MPH
Katrina L. Cork, MD
Marcus L. Marable, MS3
Jennifer Elliott Allen, MD
T. Oshodi, MD
Jasmine Zapata, MD, MPH
Richard Louissaint, MD
Lucille Martinez, MD
Nadja N. Jones, MD
Deborah R. Griffiths, MD, FACEP
Marcus Cleveland Germany, MD
Kimberley Smith, MD
Christine Bussey, MD
Shannon Thompson, MS, DDS
Racquel Holmes, MD
Chelsea Sumner, PharMD
Jennifer Rowe Snell, MD
Jonathan Hickson, MD, MPH
Yetunde Orafidiya, MD
Tamiko Jackson McArthur, MD
Jessica A. Johnson, MD
Maria C. Warren, DVM
Lucky Krog, MS2
Avery Anaje, DMD
Meagan Morrison, MD
Ashley K. Crumby, MD
Zoë I. Smith, MD
Malika Anderson, PharMD
Hannah E. Paulding, MD
Uche Anigbogu, MD
Lauren Rowe, DVM
Faidat Gbajabiamila, MS2
Nefertari Terrill-Jones, MD
Elizabeth Ray-Smith, MD
Cynthia Anunobi, MD
Jodi-Ann Edwards, MD
Rula Al-Saghir, MD
Tahreem Aziz, DO
Brianna Mays, MS1
Alexis Webber, MD
Ikechukwu Onyedika, MD
Tatiana Nunez, MD
Kathryn D. McGhee, MD
Nicole Thomas, MD
Alexis Hammond, MD, PhD
Erica Broussard, MD
Letitia Lyons Watson, MD
LaKeisha Davis, DMD
Alicia N. Sanders, MD
Yanick Elame, PharMD
Laurrn Carroll, MD, MBA
Rebecca Shatsky, MD
Kemoy Harris, MD
Michael Otoo, MS2
Nathalie Adam, MS2
Magdala Chery, DO, MBS
Jameca Price, MD
Amie C. Casey, DVM
Jennifer J. Parker, MD, PhD, MPH
Fausta Tabe, OD
Kerri Carter, MD
Tseganesh Selameab, MD
Kevin Vernet, DMD
Jessica Nelson, MD
Kethia Eliezer, MD
Courtney Hall, PharMD
Kelly Gilgeours, MD
Janifer Tropez-Martin, MD, MPH
Chae Life, MD
Sopuru Ezeonu, MS3
Nakish Grant, MD
Tolulope Odedokun, MD
RaShonda Flowers, MD
Shakevia Johnson, MD
Cathy Richards, DO
Odolohe Augustin, OMS1
Oluwatosin Ayotunde, MD
Linda F. Korley, MD
Janelle Baptiste, MD, MPH
Indigo A. Gill, MS2
Olivia O. Oyegunle, OD
Cameron Rutledge, MBS
Tracey Banks, MD
Lauren D. Ausama, MD
Linisha Mills, DDS
Michaela Banks, MD, MBA
Alex Rodriguez, MD
Kori Mansfield, MD
Marjory Charlot, MD
Willnella Peters, OD
Jasmine L. May, MD, PhD
Olumide Akindutire, MD
Namdi Nwasike, MS2
Ujuka Iloabuchi, MD
Nathan Chomilo, MD
Chiebonam Oguejiofor, MD
Jaurel Harley, MD
Roxanne D. Semple, MD
Sarah Washington, MD, FAAP
Patricia Jean-Charles, DO
Raven M. Jewett, DVM
Martha Ocansey James, MD
Iyesha Robinson, MD
Adetunbi Ayeni, MD
Hawa Tunkara, MD
CPT Juanetta Asare Wassow, PharmD,
BCPS Leidy Isenalumhe, MD
Chynna D. Smith, OMS4
Alexis Pascoe, MD
Brian Clark, MD
Taylor Davis, MD
Leigha M. Carryl, MS2
Tiffany Gillion, OMS3
Myra M. Morris, DMD
Travis Bryant, MS4
Rachel J. Baiyee-Cady, DO
Uju Eziolisa, DO
Anton M. Alerte, MD
Amber Bell, MS4
Brandon A. Roberts, MD
Farrah-Amoy Fullerton, MD, MS4
Tameta Clark, MD
Jon A. Cokley, PharMD
Alanna A. Morris, MD, MSc
Beatrice Jourdain, OMS3
Beza Tekola, MD
Margaret Ridge, MD
Edidiong David, MD
Charla N. Burns, MD
Sharon T. Thomas, MD
Curtis Errol Ball, DO
D’Angela Pitts, MD
Samuel Opoku-Acheampong, MD, MBA
Jay-Sheree Allen, MD
Kywanna Alfred, MD
Precious Bieni, DDS
Bianca Aibuedefe, MS1
Kesha Allen, MD
Aliya Brown, PharMD
Dedriana Lomax, MS3
Alyshia Wiggins, PharMD
James McGhee, MD
Michele Troutman, MD
Brittany L. Hozik, MD
Isis Holloway, DO
Taylor D. Jenkins, MD
Erica Sutton, MD
Adebola Falae, MD
Fritz-Andre Duterlien, DPM
Dominique M. Woods, MD, MPH
Margaret Carole Stewart, MD
Bahareh Aslani, MD
Keon Anderson, DDS
Amalia I. Lee MD, MPH
Melanie Malloy, MD, PhD
Ashley Ezema, MS3
Lamarr Holland, DMD
Tomica D. Blocker, MD, PhD
Joy N. Williams, MD
Chioma Oti, DO
Frank Acheampong, PharMD
Derek Kwakye, MD
Philip A. Davidson, DDS
Anthony Isenalumhe Jr., MD, DABAM
Catherine Lewis, MD, PhD
Benaifer P. Siganporia, MS2
Amblessed Onuma, MD, MS
Asha Davis, MD
Leonard Alexander Stallings, MD
Brittany Parker, MD
Shermnae D. Jones, DDS
Dorian Longshore, DMD
LaToya S. Clark Hughes, MD
Jennifer M. Moore, MD
Deanna Graves, PharMD
Rumbi Kapfumvuti, OMS3
Charley Cheney III, DMD
Dana Reynolds, MD
Cynthia Jamison, MD
Lydia W. Searcy, MD
Shelley J. Henderson, MD
Monicka Felix, MD
Olusola O Isikalu MD, MBS
Dominique C. Smith, MD
Devon Aganga, MD
Christina Marcelus, MS
Brittany Tarrant, MD, MS
Chideraa Ukeje, MS4
Robin Kindred, MD
Monique Butler, MD, MBA
Joselyn Hines, OMS2
M N Achong MD
Sagine Berry-Tony, MD
Michele Thomas, MD
Emmanuelle Ruocco, MD
Rhonda O. Williams, MD
Nneka O. Sederstrom, PhD, MPH, MA, FCCP, FCCM
Oyenmwen Joy Inneh, MD
Sūra Edmond, MD, MBS
Jennifer B. Harris, PharMD
Schneider Rancy, MS4
Alexandra Altamura, MS1
Angela Rodgers, MD
Adesuwa Akhetuamhen, MD
Rahiwa Gebre, MD
N. Dhliwayo, MD
Oluwatosin Adebiyi, MS4
Lukmanafis Babajide, MD
Samuel Olukayode Ayo, MD
Faidat Gbajabiamila, MS2
Paul Tripathi, MD
Marc Harrigan, MD
Akua Boah, MD
Stacy Ejem, MD, MS
Nnenna Mbabuike, MD
Marsha Lachaud, DO
Mia H Weber MD
Kyeiwaa Amofa-Boachie, MD
Tiffany Chioma Anaebere, MD
Danielle R. Doucet, MD
Ondreia J. Hunt, MD
Alyssa Eily, MD
Shakera M. Holmes, OD, MS
Will McClure Jr., MD
Nwamaka Amobi, MS1
Olutola Yerokun, MS2
Jasmine Fernander, OMS1
D. Wayne Smith, MBA, MA, MD
Haley K. Talbot Stetsko, MS2
Melissa Williams, MD
Andrea Williams, MD, MPH, FACOG
Razaz Mageid, MD
Rodrick Stewart, DO
Joselyn Hines, OMS2
Sandhya Vinta, MD
Eboni A. Reed, MD
Bernice Badu, MS4
Shanté Barnes, MS2
Najaz K Woods-Bishop, MD
LaTasha Marshall, PharMD
Ene Grace Morgan, MD
Therlinsie Fleurizard, MD
Jessica Fenton, MS4
Joseph A. Quash Jr., MD
Wendy Clay, MPH, MS4
Ifeoma Oriaku, MD
Mary Fakunle, MD
Seun Wert, DO
Natalie Wallace, MD
Linelle F. Campbell MD, MS
Maxwell Sencherey, DO
Charrell Bird, MD
Cameo Cozart-Chance, MD
Ayanna Smith, MD, MPH
Sheena Pullman, MD
Ashada Knight, MD
Jazmine Harris, MD
Jacqueline Rice-McKenzie, MD
Robert Assibey, MD
Zonía Moore, MS1
Chelsea Osuji, MS2
Louis Rolston-Cregler, MD
Kyndra Liburd, MD
Farrah-Amoy Fullerton, MS4
Scha’chia Murphy, MD, MPH
Seleipiri Iboroma Akobo, MD, MBA, MPH
Oscar D. James, MD
Marvah Hill Pierre-Louis, MD
Tsedey Eshetu, MD
April Watson Stringfellow, DDS
Demetria Smith-Graziani, MD
Natalie Moulton-Levy, MD
Kiesha Fraser Doh, MD
Melanie K. Sion, MD
Valerie Hansbrough, MD
Pamela Y. Martin, DVM
Elizabeth Damstetter, MD, FAAD
Semhar Tesfai, MD
Chantelle L. Collins, MD
Olufenwa Milhouse, MD
Ololade Akinfemiwa, MS
Pamela C. Bland, MD
Lauren Cooper, OMS2
Allison McDade, MD
Mari-Ashli Foy, MD
Michael D. Boswell, MD
Sarah E. James, MD, PhD
Patricia P. Jeudin, MD
Melani Sanders, MD
Phylicia D. Gawu, DO
Erika Cravanas, MD
Malik C. Spady, MD
Akemie Gray, MD
Dianne O’Neal, MD
Alesia Billingslea, MD
Vanessa Rose, MD
Chinelo Onyeka, DO
Donique Cross, MD
Hannah D. Rice, DVM
Maurell L. James, OMS2
Ric Smith, MD
Trina Parker, MD
Carman Windom, MS1
Tiona Stephens, MD
Katherine Young, MD
Tori Greaves, MS3
Nicole Murray, MPH, MS3
Erica Barry, PharMD
Rick Gustave, MD
Ansa Anderson, MD
Kimberly Shields, DDS
Estelle A. Rutledge, MD
Earic Bonner, MD
Nformbuh Asangmbeng, MD
Merije Chukumerije, MD
Maureen Nwaokoro, DO
Naa Akawa Koppoe, MD
Chantel Thompson, OMS4
Ebele Compean, MD
Ulunna MacBean, MD, FACS
Joshua Omade, MS4
Paula Oruh, PharMD
Ameera Haamid, MD
Tariq Islam, MS
Folashade Wolfe-Modupe, MD
Lorelle E Bradley, MD
Vanessa K Ferrel, MD, MPH
Anicia M. Ivey, MD
Tamandra Morgan, MD, ScM
Hope-Elizabeth Clennon, DO
Chika Chukwu, MS4
Anita Haynes, MD
Karla Tytus, MS3
Steffie-Ann Dujon, MD
Shacelles Bonner, MD
Nneka Hendrix, MD
LaKisha Mamon, MD
Nicole Bell, DDS
Tawanna Charlton, MS3
Phylicia Odume, DO
Brittney Williams, MD
Justin Clark, MD
Thomas Riley, MS4
Elizabeth Siaw, MS3
Seyi Aderotoye-Oni, MD
Krys Foster, MD, MPH
Furkan Shinaishin, MD
Diana Mosquera, MD
Kiesha Raphael, MD
Kimberly Adu-Gyamfi, MS2
Taurah Dizadare MS, MLS (ASCP), MS3
Venita Simpson, MD
Randy Jerod Barbour, Jr., PhD
Dawit Jowhar, MD
Yolandra Hancock, MD, MPH
Daphney Noel, MS3
Kendra Merine, MD
Nnaemeka Afamefuna Onyekaba, MD
Angelica Garrett Wood, MD
Yah Kamei, MD
Araba Ofosu-Somuah, MD
Alexandra G. Caldwell, MS3
Leslie Yates, PharMD
Maryruth E. Jordan, DVM
Nofisat Almaroof, MD
Britanne Doss, MD
Alicia Rodgers, OMS3
DaShaunté M. Coleman, DVM
Eghosa Enabulele, MS2
Cameron Body, MD
Dominique Cross, MD
Veneshia McKinney-Whitson, MD
Adeola Adelayo, MD
Kerri Latchmansingh, MD
Jasmine S. Howell, PharMD
Pilar Stevens Haynes, MD, FACC
Brieanna B. Bivens, MD
Nnaemeka Emenari, PharMD
Jameika Stuckey, PharMD
Nkiruka Chukudebelu Olele, MD
Candice Chipman, MD
Dara Spearman, MD
Archiebold Johnson, MD
Christian Pean, MD
Letitia A. Cosbert, MD
Reuben Horace Jr., MPH, MS3
Gregory Larrieux, MD
Erica Waples, MD, MPA
Schyler Edwards, MS3
Shanna Warner, DDS
Najah Waters, MD, MPH
Augusta Ankoh, DMD
Shaletha Jones, MD
Olubadewa A. Fatunde, MD, MPH
Keisha Barry, MD
Debra Eluobaju, MS
Melissa Kelly, DO
Kartemus O. Heary, MD, MSCI
Genise Mcaskill, MD
Robyn Sackeyfio, MD
Taisha S. Husbands, MD
Will Kennedy, MD
Noelani S. Gonzales, MS2
Tem Woldeyesus, MD
Alexandria Opata, MD
Asha Morrow, MD
Osei Bekoe, MD
Delphine George, DDS
Emmanuel L. Chandler, MD
Tolani Are, MS3
Letitia A. Yearby, PharMD
Otibhor Igene, MD
Jaudé K. Petrie, MS2
Danielle Arnold, MD
Melaku Arega, MS3
Regine Boutin, MD
Antoinette Stewart, MS2
Brian Perry, MD
Alex Balmir, DO
Warren G. Lee III, MD
Iymaan Pinkman, MS4
Joseph Acquaye, MD
Toyosi Olafuyi, MS
Jamie Rogers, OMS1
Blair A. Streater, MD, MEd
Delight Mungoma, MS3
Asha Ayub, MS4
LaToya Crabbe, PharMD
Lori-Ann Glasgow, MD
Dorian Bonam, MS, DO
Nefertiti Tyehemba, MD
Zahra Omar, DDS
Nicole Ramsey, MD, PhD
Paula Denoya, MD
Percy Takyi, OMS-2
Ifeoma Imonugo, MD
Shironda Stewart, MD
Odicie Fielder-Kimbrough, MD
Aloys Nsereko, MD
Stephanie Garcia, MD
Theresa Call, MD
Zuri Hudson, DO
Joanna Akinlosotu, MD
Jacqueline S. McLaughlin, MD
Anthony Warhelume Okolo, MD
Tyler Marie Kiles, PharmD, BC-ADM
Bell Girma, MD
Keon Pearson, MD
Grant Porter, PharMD
Francise Lamothe, MD
Brett Mitchell, MS2
Filsan Farah, MD
Uchenna Agbim, MPH, MD
Jill Kaplan, PhD
Mona Gupta, DO
Tanise Branche, MD
Adwoa A. Adu, MD
Felisha Perry-Smith, MS4
Jarrett L. Manning, DDS, MPH
Wendi K. Wardlaw, DDS
Simisola Alalade, MD
Victor I. Emmanuel, PharMD
Brittany Mays, MD
Enat Arega, MSc, MS1
Tamara Davis, PharmD, BCPS
Shanteria Dixon, MD, MPH
Ebony Darden, PharMD
Ashlee Roberson, MD
Omotayo Salami, PharMD
Bianca Mosley, MD
Shannon Ejiofor, DO
Eniola Ogundipe, MS3
Candace Tannis, MD
Valerie A. Pierre, MD
Danoucheka Gelin, MD
Ian A. Thompson, MD, MPH
Autumn Stevenson, MS
Linda L. McIntire, MD
Tonia Branche, MD, MPH
Tiffany Clay, MD
Dwan Perry, DO
Anu Akinsanya, MD
Lynea Bull, MD
Sara Maples, MD
Keia Sanderson, MD, MSCR
Angelique Turner, MS3
Cassandra Mitchell, MS3
Kelsea R. Grant, MS3
Lester H Lambert, MS2, ENS

Terri-Ann Nelson, MS
Jasmine M. Dillard, MD
Shikerria L. Green, MD
Adrianne A. Deveira, MD
Anthony C. May, MS2
Shakeilla Shabazz, MD
Nakitta Noel, MD
Chelsy Webb, MD
Linda Plummer Ward, MD, MBA
Nicole Guynn, MS
Catrina Ellis, PharmD, CPh
Nachelle Aurelien, MD
T. King, MD
Jacqueline Francis, MD, MPH
Shawnese Gilpin, MD, MPH
Joi S. Phillips, MD
Donessa Fraser, MD
Bridgette Callaham, MD
Joffre Johnson, MD
Vontriska Jones, DS
Natacha Pierre, MD
Kelvin A. Barry, Sr., DPM
Kersha Pennicott, MD
Mergie Desir, MD
RenalDO
Williams, MD
Chonn Cadiz, MD
Zainab Abdullah, MD
Circe Lassegue, DDS
Cynthia Lewis, MD
Marie Dufitumukiza, MD
Oluwadamilola Ajiboye, MD
Keeley A. McNeal, DVM
Olufolarin Oke, MD
JoAnn Warrick, MD
Dominique Durham, DMD
Charlene Brown, DDS
Jasmine Rogers, OMS1
Genise A. Evans, DDS
Wilhemina Kennedy, MS2
Brandon Penn, MD, MBA
Ingrid Wilson, MD
Ashlyn Williams, DVM
Catherine Christie, MD
Christian B. Lawrence, MD
Sheba Christina Ebhote, MS4
Samantha Bosse, MD
Titilola Sode, MD
Byron V. Etta, MD
Ann Arthur, MD
Jacqueline Joe, MD
Beth McCampbell, MD
Marcee Wilder, MD, MS, MPH
Akayla Gillians, MD
Kimilia Kent, MS, PharMD
Victoria Lybrand, MD
Atasha Jordan, MD, MBA
Rewaida Hall, MD
Tiffany Humes, OD
Onyinyechukwu Okorji, DO
Fritz-Andre Duterlien, DPM
Evangela Anderson, DPM
Carmen V. Brown, MD, FACOG, FRANZCOG
Aisha Moore, DDS
LaShire Diegue, MD
Nichelle Logan, PharMD
Kerry-Ann Kelly, MD
Oronde Smith, MD
Sheriff Akinleye, MD
Camille Richards, MD
Tanya Howard, MD
Yolanda M. Lenzy, MD, MPH
Tonya H. Hunter, MD
Erin P. Carter, MD
Alexandra Thompson, MD
Jordan Branch, MS3
Anique Forrester, MD
Lindsey Keys White, MD
Linda Ojo, MD, MPH
Ebubechi Okwumabua, MD, MS, MHS
Melanie N. Wilson, MD
Jennifer Wade Seaton, MD
Rishan Tesfay Desta, MD
Brandan L. Dotson, MD
Kristoff Gayle, MD
Janelle Miller, MD
Ericka N. Oliver, MD
Brittany N. Palmer, DVM
Lorece Shaw, PharMD
Jacqueline D. Wilson, MD, MPH
Jenifer Thomas, MD
Chinonso Asinugo, MD
Oladimeji Oki, MD
Jamie Hill-Daniel, MD
Stanley Dumond, MD
Brittany Blue, MD
Abina Goncalves, MD
Daidre Azueta, MD
Noel-Marie Fischre, MD
Yolanda Shaw, MD
RobinJacquet-Williams, MD
Alisahah Cole, MD
Cedric Dark, MD, MPH, FACEP
Shayla Nesbitt, MD, MPH
Whitney Talbott, MD
Adebimpe Oyowe, MD, PhD
Bernice Aduamankwa, MD
Fred Jones-Rosa, MD
Juanita Lewis, MD
L. Yvette Robinson, MD, MPH
Lekiesha K. Porter, MD
Dawn Walters, DVM
Jamesha S. Ford, DO
Shaveonté Graham, MS2
Jessica Reynolds, MD
Malkit Singh, MD, MPA
Morgan Jivens, OMS4
Mithila Jegathesan, MD
Cynthia Gatiri, MS3
Nana E. Tchabo, MD
Candice April, DDS
Beverly Belle, MD
Sierra A. Clark, MS4
Sarahjean Kerolle, MD
Jasmine Bookert, MD
Stafford Brown Jr., MD
Aisha Stroop, MD
Chike Ochieze, MD
Annie J. Daniel, PhD
Tamanda Douglas, MD
Van Johnson, DPM
Nadirah L. Chin, PharMD
Mercy Dickson, MD, MBA
Mikaela Moore, MS4
TKayhlia Cornish, OMS1
Amaris Yandel, DO
Patricia Millner, MD
Nusirat Jinadu, MD
Peace Orji, MS
Dea Jini Sloan, MD, MPH
Megan Borens, MD
Erica Igbinoghene, MD
Courtney Vito, MD
Janet D. Morgan, MD
Mohamed Diop, MD, MS
Nadia Anderson, MPH, MS1
Angela Guzman, MD
Ashley Green, MD
Carol Major, MD
Darlene Davis, DDS
Alrick L. Drummond, MD
LaVonne Hairston, MD
Hiwot Mengiste, MD
Akachi Agor, MS4
Mwamba Mvula, MD
Sarah-Pearl Siganporia, MS4
K. Marche’ Robinson, MD
Taneisha Sinclair, MS
Zelalem Temesgen MD
Tamika K. Cross, MD
Ebehi Ibazebo, MD
Lorelle E. Bradley, MD
Erica Louden, MD, PhD
Aunsha Williamson, MS2
Mariah Bullock, VS
Lindsay B. Howard, MD
Andrea Best, MD
Mwatsveruka N. Munhutu, MD, MPH
Porchia James, DDS
Arnaud Batchou, MS4
Lori-Ann Daley, MD
Jessica Richason Johnson, DPM, MHA, ABPM
Stephanie Taylor, PharMD
Avia Wilkerson, MD
Lori Hutchinson, MD
Sarita Metzger, MD, MPH
Stacey Starkes, DDS
Kristina Hart, MS3
Adekemi Akano, MD
Tashana Haye, MD
Kimberly Schwartz, MD
Charnise Taylor, MS3
Jonathan Diah, MD
Onyeka Otugo, MD, MPH
April Kelly, DVM
Svena Julien, MD
Lynn A. Pauls, MD
Amanda L. Amin, MD, MS
Chinomnso Ekeke, MD
Collette Onyejekwe, PharMD
Krista Miller, MD
Antionette Knox, DVM
Chanel J. Redden, DVM, CVA
Clara Woods, MS1
Lauren O’Neill, MD
Akua A. Domfe, MD
Angela K. Brice, DMV, PhD, DACVP
Hebist Berhane, MD
Chiatne McFarland, MD
Eliceia Dionne Jackson, MD
Evelyn Taiwo, MD
Phillip R. Traylor, MD
Regina Hampton, MD, FACS
Jamela Middleton, MD
O’Rese J. Knight, MD
Camille Wilson, MD
Keva T. Green, MD
Anne E. Hardy-Henry, MD
Chyleigh J. Harmon, BS, MS4
Temitope Foster, MD, MSCR
Patrice Barber, DDS
Dapo Iluyomade, MD
Liese Pruitt, MD, MSCI
JeNita Partridge, MD
Christian Hendrix, MD
Donald R. Lynch Jr., MD
Doreen Kyere, MD
LaTandra Blue, OD
Chima Amadi, MBA, MS4
Samira L. Brown, MD
Emmanuel U. Obi, MD
Allison Latimore, MD
T.M. Crawford, DMD, MSD
Joseph Laseter, MS3
Angelique Gadson, MS3
Danielle Hairston, MD
Lauren Tamara Wilson, MS4
Latisse Mays-Stovall, MD
Allyn O. Toles, MD
Julia Cartledge, MD
Chelsea Henshaw, MD
Ronda Lynn Broady, DO
Anna Juern, MD
Regina Smith, DO
Cynthia Lawrence Dugas Elliott, MD
Marie Denise Gervais, MD
Carlye D. Summers, DVM
Theophilus O. Abah, MS, MS3
Krystal M. Preston, PharmD, BCPS
Tiffany Jones, MD
Maureen Onweni, MD
Nicole D. White, MD
Linda Forrester, MS1
Juline Asamoah, MD
Olayemi U. Okunseinde, MD
Gerald E Morris MD, MPH, ABOM
Ashley M. Wilson, MD
Amir Hobson, MS2
Melissa Espert, MD
Anisa Shomo, MD
Tosin Fatusin, MD
Aminatu Akande, MD
Kristina Dortche, MS4
Sudhi Trye, MD
Jacqueline Deneen Griffiths, MD
Tina Pickett, MD
Deborah Dyett Desir, MD
Beza Getahun, MS4
Tamarrah C. Davis, MD
Lusana Ahsan, MD
Symphorosa Williams, MD
Darwin D. Smith, MD
Bahrenegash Getachew, MD
Laveil M. Allen, MD
Uchenna C. Ewulonu, MD
Linet Nyaribo, MD
Joy Ebo, PharMD
Ashley Atkinson, MD
Rachel-Marie Cazeau, MD
Veronica Wright, MD
LaToya N. Walker, MD
Tammeka Nickleberry, DDS
Sierra Burden, MD
Ozioma Obiwuru, MD
Aina Adekunle, MD
Judea Wiggins, MD
Shannon Cannon, MD
Onyinye I. Iweala, MD, PhD
Arthur Only, MD
Dana Baker, DVM
Dolani Ajanaku, MD
Faith Crittenden, MPH, MS4
India Gibson, DDS
Moremi A. Gravesandy Vassall, MD
Saboria Thomas, MPH, MS3
Cynthia Akagbosu, MD
Fisayo Kayode-Ajala, MD, MPH
Regine Mathieu, MD
Kimberlynn M Heller, DO, FACOG
Crystal Obih, MD, BSN
Stephanie E. Kuntz, DO
Edwina Clarke, MD
Veronica G. Lewis, MD
Jessica D. Blanding, MD
Sheridan Charles, MD
Alicea Hill, OD
Ayesha N. Lovick, MD
Lishan J. Walker, MD
Jessica D. Williams, MD
C. Camille Okekpe, DO, MS
Uchenna R. Okereke, MD, MSCI, FAAD
Jessica Brereton Peterkin, DMD
Lovelle McFadden-Parsi, DO
Musa Ajamu Williams, MD
Sabrina Whitehurst, MD
Carmen Gonzales, MD
Robert Pierre, DMD
Abiola A. Babawale, DO
Jennifer Adrissi, MD
Angela M Porter, MD
Sebastian G. Placide, MD
Nicholas Robinson, PharMD
Keyonna Taylor-Coleman, MD
Sedrick J. Bradley, MD
Khandase B. Tate-Nero, MD
Katrice M. Brooks, MD
Kathia Smith, MD, MS
Ellana Stinson, MD, MPH
Bianca Islam, MD, PhD, MSc
Krystal Mitchell-Gba, MD, MBA
Cheron Perkins, MS1
Bianca Hall, DO
Jasmine Obioha, MD
Jennifer Gilbert, MD
Mariaah Williams, MD
Janelle Lee, MD
Christen Johnson, MD, MPH
Carmelita Taylor, MD, FAAP
Avery L. Nolen, MD
Steven Keglar, DDS
Melissa Locke, DO
Daniel Woolridge, MD
Melissa E. Chima, MS3
Nelson Adamson, MD
Melina Charles-Pierre, PharMD
Dolores King, MD
Dillon J.E. James, MS1
Christopher Riley, MD
Jeunice Owens-Walton, MS3
Osarieme Esene, MD
Erika Johnson, OD
Alyssa Lowder, PharMD
Sharian Glaze, DDS, PAC
Keisha Gibson, MD, MPH
Elizabeth M. Gomes, DO
Natalee Stone, MD
Damien Larkins, MD
Kia Grundy, MD
Folawiyo Babalola, MS4
Tahira J. West, MD
Jacquelyn Francis, MD
Jefferson Ebube, MS3
Yara V. Robertson, MD
Vanetta Levesque, MD
Linease Vega, MD
Amy S. Ross, MD
Carmen Kilpatrick, MD
Sanya Tinubu, MD
Nyarai Mushonga, MD, FACOG
Chino Aneke-Nash, MD, PhD
Keyonna M. Jenkins, MD
Mary Namugosa, MS2
Brittany Young, PharMD
Bianca Nesbeth, MD
James L. Carlisle, MD
ALexandra Onyejiaka, PharMD
Ebonie Vincent, DPM
Gabrielle Gear, MS4
Linda F. Korley, MD
Jasmine Ogundipe, MS3
J. Stallworth, DDS
Francis Agyemang, MS3
Esi Bentsi-Barnes, MD
Henry L. Greene, DO
Tiffany B., MD
Kerry-Ann V. Pinard, MD
Hope Mitchell, MD
Shylet Mukasa, PhD, MS3
Jacqueline Patterson, DDS
Nwayieze Chisara Ndukwe, MD, MPH
Sharonda Clark, MD
Ashanti E. Smith, MD, PharMD
Sharayne Mark Coffin, MD
Mary Cobb, DPM
Jean-Jacques Mbabuike, MD
Natasha Ramsey, MD, MPH
ChiChi Udochi, MD
Carey-Walter F. Closson, MD
Katelyn Butler, MS3
Melat Gebremichael, MD
Jessica Owaka, MS4
Justin Redding, PharMD
Talaya Clark, MD
Renee D. James, PharMD
Michele Hollis, MD
Stephen Richmond, MD
Melody Rurangirwa, MD
Chad Y. Lewis, MPH, MS4
Jamey Snell, MD
Robin Favor, MD
Denise Powell, MD
Milca A. Isaac, MD
Natalie Robiou, MD
Xena Whittier, MD
Ericka Stone, MD
Olaide O. Ajayi, MD
Lydia Keise, MD
Trenika J. Williams, MS3
Nia Adeniji, MS4
Jasmine Rogers, OMS1
Mariam Keita, DO
Sharel S. Sly, DDS
Kyzwana Caves, MD, FAAP, AAHIVS
Jasmine N. Wilson, DVM
Allie Henderson-Fitts, MD, MHA
Princess Mark-Adjeli, MD
Olivia G. Nathan, RPh, PharMD
Evelena Cousin-Peterson, MD
Kiarra King, MD
Akilah Grimes, MD
Denrick Cooper Jr., MD
Sheena Favors Williams, DO, MS
Dakota Lane, MD
Tracey K. Peatross, MD, FACOG
Jasmine Jackson, DVM
Faith Whittier, MD
Jacqueline K. Watson, MD
Paul Johnson, MD
Rim M Hadgu, PharMD
Eric Hawkins, DO
Krystal Green, MD
Sofanit Dessie, MD
Hassan Nur, DMD
Tedra Thomas, MD
Amber Nicole Marsh, MS4
Akilah Artis, DDS
Peace Nosa-Omorogiuwa, MS2
Nicole Sample-Harris, MD, MPH
Nancy N Emelife, MD
Tolu Ariyo Akinmade, MD
Chantelle S. Washington, DO
Inell C. Rosario, MD
Willie Landrum II, MD
Alden Landry, MD, MPH
Kenneth C. Reed, MD
Keisha Lowther, MD
Abigail R. O’Reggio, MD
Trevor Talbert, MD
Teri Brown, MD
Brittany Rogers, OD
Olufunke Bakare, MD
Janelle Townes, MD
Martin L. Campbell, MD
Benjamin E. Young II, MD
Joia Crear Perry, MD
Alicia D. Evans, MD
Martha Teke, MD
Aminata Traore, MS3
Monica Lee-Griffith, MD, MBA
Inieke Ikpe, MD
Jennifer David, DO
Jazmine Loman, DO
Ogechukwu Imonugo, DPM
Jennifer Stewart, MD
Olisa Okafor, DO
Monica N. Williams, DDS
Elena Gore, MD, MPH
Selamawi Mesfin, MD
Kemunto Mokaya, MD
Ruby Agoha, MD
Tolulope Rosanwo, MD
Courtney Wilson, DDS
Ebele Compean, MD
Reece McKenzie, MD
Temi Daramola, MS
Mack Bonner, MD, MPH, FACP
Nadlie Toussaint, MS4
Guylda Johnson, MD
Yejide Adewunmi, MS4
Ja’Nelle M. Blocker, MD
Ashlee-Marie Jones, MD
Alexandra Guillaume, MD
Endya Frye, MD
Kisha N. Davis, MD, MPH
Sangeetha Kolluri, DO, FACOS
Torrin Goodrum, PharMD
Victoria O. Ibukun, PharMD
Erica Paultre-Michael, DDS
Kathleen Bryan, OS1
Vickeima Sydney, MS3
Maxine Owusu, MD
Jovonsia McLeod Taylor, MD
Edjah K. Nduom, MD
Melissa Jackson, MD
Temeri Wilder-Kofie, DVM
DACLAM Tyree Winters, DO
Jasmine Bryant Skinner, MD
Jennae Shelby, MS3-PhD Candidate
Kiyanda Baldwin Young, MD
Omowunmi Ajibola, MD
Akua Owusu-Dommey, D2
Jamaeka Reid, MD
Leticia Dwomor, MD
Tanya Thomas, MS3
Luke Naman, MD
KaNisha L. Hall, MD
Raniece Trench, DVM
Nigenda Griffin, OD
Destiney Kirby, MS1
Benecia Williams, DO
Dionne Hart, MD
Lisa Richardson, MD, MSPH, FAAFP
Ejiofor Ezekwe, MD, PhD
Kemnasom Nwanwen, MD
Talia Johnson, DDS
Obichi Onwukwe, MS2
Trevor McKoy, MS
Ashley Inez Thrower, MD
Shadashalin Pierce, MS2
Fisayo Ogundele, PharMD
Eugenio Villarreal, MD
Omar Sanon, MS4
Whitney Lyn, MD
Asiya Tschannerl, MD, MPH, MSc
Caurice Wynter, MS, MS4
Liban Dinka, MS2
Myra L. Mathis, MD
Oluwatosin Adenuga, MD
G. Brandon Atkins MD, PhD
Christa-Bella Murengera, PharMD
Alexandra Haywood, DVM
Mamie Sarpoma Sefa-Boakye, MD
Olutoyin salami, MD
Matthew Smith, MD
Toni Otway, MD
Evelyn Nicole Mitchell, MD
Dennis Ologunro, MS1
Marthe Dika, MD
Zoe Paul, MD
Lisa Wallace, DDS
Eve Bloomgarden, MD
Angela Davis Brown, MD
Pamela A. Akametalu, MD
Nina Lum, MD
Amanda Donald, MD
Oluwadamilola Ilesanmi, MS1
Michelle Chambers, MD
Ayiti-Carmel Maharaj-Best, MD
Marjorie G. Michel, MD
Kevin Francois, MS2
Johnbosco Okpala, MD
Dana Parker, MD
Gabrielle James, MD
Melissa Cole, MD
Ayana Langston, MD, MS
LaKica Amos, DMD
Zalaya K. Ivy, MD, MS
Erwin Odongo, MS3
Paul Rollins, MD
Linnette Leticia Vásquez, DVM
Mashanda Campbell, MD
Paula Crawford-Harris, MD, MPH
Yetunde Ibrahim, MD
Jade Anderson, MD
Willie D. Taylor Jr., DVM
Anastasia N. Orakwue, DDS, MHS
Jennifer Tran, MD, FRCPC, DABD
Tochi Unegbu-Ogbonna, MS3
Shanique Martin, MD
Alex Williams, MD
Victoria Cohen, DO
Deawodi Ladzekpo, MD
Jasmine Heard, DO
Erinma Ukoha, MD, MPH
Bethany D. Bonner, PharMD
Robin Vidal, PharMD
Adrienne N. Cobb, MD, MS
Sarah Blackwell, DVM
Claire Elpenord, MD
Carl Earl Lambert, Jr., MD, FAAFP
Daphne Mlachila, MD
Tequilla Manning, MD, DIMPH
Mica Winchester, MD
Dacia Murdock, MD
Ndidi Unaka, MD, MEd
Lauren Bacon, MD
Miesty Woodburn, MD
Esi Rhett, MD
Tasha W, MS3
Cameron Gilliard, MD
Kiandra Scott, MD
Stephanie Scott, MD, MPH
Sahlia K. Joseph-Pauline, DO
Jamila Holston, OMS4
Temeka Zore, MD
Tiara Aldridge, MD
Nastassia Brown, DPM
Paschal Ike, MD, MHSA
Whitney White, MD
Adaugo Ike, MD
Michelle Green, MD
Jessica Paulin, PharMD
Sonya Shipley, MD, FAAFP
Sula Mazimba, MD
Cassandra Harewood, MD
Wilbert L. Jones, MD
Fidelis Ojevwe, MD, PharMD
Raleke O. Adibe, DO
Maya M. Green, MD
Yolanda Lewis-Ragland, MD, FAAP
Joycelyn Akamune, MD, MPH
Melissa G. Kress, DO
Gregory Daggett Jr., DVM
Erica Lowery, MD
Terri Lynn Major-Kincade, MD, MPH
Elizabeth De Jesus, MS4
Jazmine Elleston, MS3
Joseph Iluore, MD
Chrystal Nelson, MS3
Vikisha Fripp, MD, FACS
Fri Awasum, MD
Ashley Bettts, DVM
Keva Gwin, PharMD
Shannon Crane, MD
Deonna R. Reese-White, MS4
L. Bumpus, DDS
Crystal Nnenne Azu, MD, MPH
Charles G. Grant III, MD
Morgan P. Bryant, MS4
Nyema Woart, DO
Ayisha Edwards, MD
Adeola Awodele, MD
Asmerom Adhanom, DO
Erin Jones, MD
Ozioma Nwaigwe, MD
Jessica Brown, MD
Stephanie Burchett, MD
Serena Mitchual, DDS, MS
Angela Gantt Holliday, MD
Rosalind Usher, MD
Hana Ai, MD
Barrie Bedasee, MPH, MS2
Victoria Clark, MD
Angenette Rashad, MD
Steeve Pierre, MD, MSc
Daniel Enwere, MD
Ashanti Dunmeyer, MD
Esther Adeyemi, MS3
Jordan Jackson, MS2
Kelli Hunter, MD
Mausumi Lidogoster, MD
Shamik Shah, MS2
Tyler Rainer, MD
LaShondra Washington Gadson, MD, DFAPA
Desiree N. DiBella, MD
Jasmine S. Holmes, MS4
Simone Tomlinson, DVM
Joi Rogers, MD
Heather Skanes-DeVold, MD
Emma Wallace, MD, PhD
Elem Onyike, MD
MaryBeth Asenime, DC
Cashawna Parker, PharMD
Tarah Celestin, MS
Renee Bovelle, MD
Lauren Sheard, MD, MPH
Brittany Oliver, MD
Donna M. Neale, MD
Mignote Yilma, MD
Jason Hobbs, DMD
Dami Babaniji, MD
Jennifer L. Lapeyrolerie, MD, FACOG
Aleta Paschal, MD
Cynthia R. Hill, MD
Stephanie A. Owusu, MD, MHS
Jenais Miller, MD
Nejat Naser, MD
Eric Hawkins, DO
Rochelle Robicheaux Metoyer, MD
Toni-Marie Chandler, MD
Oluwatoyjn Weaver, MD
Alison Tam, DO, FAOCD, FAAD
Christopher M. Jenkins, MD
Leah Kanner, DMD
Kayla Steele, MD
Chibuokem Ikwuazom, MS4
Tonee Sumlin, MD
Corey Shy, MD
Patience Green, MD
Helene Okpere, MD
Cassandra Bradby, MD
Lena Amanquah, DO
LaToya R. Walker, MD
Onyi Uchime, MD, PhD
Assabi Isaac, DDS
DaShawn Hickman, MD, PhD
Hanna Beruke, MD
Ijeoma Okwandu, MD, MPH
Monica Turner, MD
Jessica Stewart, MD

Raymond H Lewis, Jr., MD
Tamika M. Carter, DO
Khalil Carter, MD, MPH, FACOG
Aylia Doomes, MS
Bethanie White, MD
Beverly Whittenberg, MD
Karen Francois, MD
Michael Nwaneri, MBBS, MD
Ashley Pierce, MD
Fatimah Audu, MD
Shelah Fields, MS, OMS3
Tennessee Bailey, MD
Colette El-Amin, DVM
Morgen Owens, MS4
Kimberly McGill, MD
Chimdimma Nwobi, MS3
Alana Thompson-Byrd, MD
Joel L. Boyd, MD
Shantele Bolton, MD
Gatebe Kironji, MD, MPH
Kashiti Long, MD
Corey K. Smith, MD
Alexis Etheridge, MS2
Ashley A. Mackey, MD
Tajh Ferguson, MD
Owen Amadasun, MD, MBA
Lynne J. Lightfoote, MD
Lemnique Wafer, DVM, DACLAM
Alisha Akinsete, MD
Kendra Atkinson, MD
Kristen D. Scatliffe, MD
Camille Moore, MD
Aanuoluwa Abiola, MD
StarKayla Lewis, MS2
Melissa Davis, MD, MBA
Selamawiet Belay, DO
Uzo Okoro, MD, MSc
Maria Uloko, MD
Tronya Hawkins, MD
Ian Bailey, MD
Carmen Robinson, MD
Abdel-Karim Brown, MS3
April Timberlake, MD
Jacquin A. Coombs, MD, FACOG
Aurielle Fanning, MD
Elaine Rodríguez, MD, MPH
Vashali Bhargava, MD
Tametra Johnson Garnier, MD
George C. Ozoude, MD
Anastasia A. Hunt, MD
Shavonne Collins, MD
Ashley Wynn, PharMD
Shannon E. Pringle, MD
Glad Nwaozo, MS3
Louise Wade, DVM
Melissa Cadet Evans, MD
Tyiesha Brown, MD
Damico Johnson, MD
Jordan Knox, MD
Kajanna McKenzie, MS4
Chinyere M. Nwosu, DO
Ijeoma C. Unachukwu, MS3
Kevin L. Allen Jr., MD
Devon McKenzie, MD
Louisa Appiah, MS3
Natalie L. M. Ramsey, PhD, MS4
Amber Shelton, MS3
Demi I.F. Lewis, MS2
Jacqueline C. Hairston, MD
Temitope Orenuga, MD, MPH
Arthurine Zakama, MD
Paul M. Osunwa Jr., MS4
JaCiara D. Johnson, DVM
Gregory S. Poindexter, DDS
Howard W. Sterling, MD
Kyshari D. McCullough, MS4
Andrew S. Alexander, MD
Damilola Idowu, MD
Tracie Calloway Lawson, DO
Danielle Jackson, OD
Maria Small, MD, MPH
Sadiat Olatunbosun, MD
Sara Hogan, MD
Dori M. Russ, MD, JD
Kayla Johnson, MD, MPH
Theodore R. Harper III, MD
Sekani J. Allen, MD, MS
Megan Anderson, DVM
Miracle C. Anokwute, MD
Jonathon Seawright, MD
Folake Lawal, MD
Jobren Dingle, DMD
Alyssa Newton, MD
Lauren Smith, MD
Vanessa Ozomaro Jeffries, MD
Aisha C. Noble, MD
MaryBeth Asenime, DC
Meggan DeVeaux, MD
Crystal Wiley Cene, MD, MPH
Erika Russell, DO
Edith Antonio, MS2
Renee Cowan, MD
L Yvette Robinson, MD, MPH
Alexandria Robinson, PharMD
James Fullwood, DPM
Nataki Hollingsworth, MD
Danté Brown, DMD, MPH
Angela Bell, MD
Linda L. McIntire, MD
Alisha Rockette, MD
Martha Tesfalul, MD
Albert Sey, MD
Alexandra-Elise Dakaud, MS4
Jason Browne, MD
Pamela Brug, MD
Laquisha Cartwright, PharmD, BCPS
Lynnette Leffall, DO
Rachel Nation, MPH, MS3
Jessica Scott, MD, MS
Gillian O. Noel, MD, MSCS
Saskya Etienne, MS4
Chima Ohadugha, MD, MPH
Loren Walwyn-Tross, MD
Lynn Newman, MD
Erin Jones, MD
Jasmine Forte, MD
Sharon Harris-Baugh, MD
Ritchie Ambroise, MD
Brandy S. Woods, MS1
Barron A. Banks, DDS, MDiv
Lindsey Stewart, MD
Ronald Dean Sutton Jr., MD
Echo P. Buffalo, MS3
Olasupo Adedapo, MD
Nana Mensa, MD
Alexandra Power-Hays, MD
Andre Harris Sr., MD
Natasha Nichols, MD
Leigh Jackson, MD
Ashley E. Vincent, MS3
Chinyere Egbuta, MD
Olasupo Adedapo, MD
La Tanya R. Hines, MD, FACOG
Sheila Hernandez, MD
Nancy Rivera, MD
Charlene Jones, MD
Taisha S. Williams, MD
Adebayo Fasanya, MD
Briana DeCuir, MD
Etuajie Oiyemhonlan Halbert, DO, MS
Amber M. Hunter, OMS2
Yorel Hickerson, MD
Alexandra Fayne, MD
Tia Joyce, D4
Franklin C. Mikell, MD
Wanda Williams, MD, MS
Nikki Sistrun, MD
Diane Thomas, MD
Shawn Davis, MD, MPH
Chiadika Nwanze, MS4
Lorelle E. Bradley, MD
Angela H. Coleman, MD
Jamesha Lewis Bryant, DO
Erika L. Rager, MD, MPH
Jessica Alford, DDS
Kandyce Pearson, PharmD, MSPH
Chisom Iwueke, MD
Christian A. Fauria-Robinson, MD
Carmesha Jordan, MS4
Lenorre Clarke, MD, MPP
Michelle Roberts-Borden, MD
Stevie Jones Jr., DVM
Matthew Johnson, MD
Nneamaka Ukatu, MD
Mechelle Moragne, MD, PhD
Taniesha Buffin, MD
Katrina Schuler, DDS
Star Tiko, MD, MPH
Nadège T. Fackche, MD
Torie Comeaux Plowden, MD, MPH
Yasmin Uzamere, MD
Lenora B.S. Williams, MD
Chukwuebuka Udokwu, MD
Lisa Upshaw, MSAC
Jontel Pierce, MD
Whitney White, DMD
Sherise Rogers, MD, MPH
Sharis Steib, MD
Adriana Suarez-Ligon, MD
Shannon F.R. Small, MD
Mellany Stanislaus, MD
Kerry-Anne Perkins, DO
Ronnye D. Purvis, MD
Mallory Hubbard-Whitley, MD
Lola Adebiyi, MS4
Barra Madden, MS3
Myla Pereira, MS1
Dianah T. Lake, MD
Antionette Cass, MS2
Marcus Jean, DDS
Shirlene Obuobi, MD
Deja Rose, MD
Love Anani, MD
Onyekachi Nwosu, PharMD
Odinaka Anyanwu, MD
Andria Danielle Matthews, MD
Alexandria Nykole Griddine, MD
Lynda E. Mbah, MD
Crystal K. Anyiam, PharMD
Tommeka Archinard, MD, MBA, FACEP
LaTaura Atwell-Small, MD
Maame Wireku, PharMD
Larissa Fomum Mugri, MPH, MS4
Alyssa Gerth, DO
Tessa Haspil-Corgan, MD, FACEP
Cornel T. Rogers, MD
Ugo A. Okoli, PharMD
Janine D. Grayson, MD, MPH
Kayla Williams, MD
Jasmine D. Johnson, MD
Ifeanyichukwu Ogobuiro, MD, MHS
Joelle Makon, MD
Iddy Kennedy, PharMD
Mazeed Aro-Lambo, MS2
Mofiyin Obadina, MD
Kamille Williams, MD
Taylor Ringgold, DDS
Kayla Holston, MS2, MPH
Ellana Stinson, MD, MPH
April Walker, PharMD
Timothy H. King, MD, MS
Jeaneen Chappell, MD
Ivo Oben Besong Mangeb, MD
Awa Sanneh, MD
Precious Okunbor, MD
Esther Oluwabukola Akindayomi, MD
Elliana Gianacopoulos, MS2
Danielle Ward, DO, MS
Jessica Shepherd MD, MBA, FACOG
Tere M. Williams, PhD
Candidate Kara Malone, MD
Sade D. Frazier, DO, MS
Oluwatobi Ariyo, DO
Imani McElroy, MD
Gabrielle Jean-Baptiste, MS3
Jamira T. Jones, MD
Lynette Lester, MS4
Adolphia Lauture, MD
Supriya Sehgal, MD
Sharee Livingston-Anderson, DO
Rachel Johnson, MD
Tiffany Richards, MD
Carla Cork, DO, MAT
Andrea White, MD
Ololade Ogundele, MD
Shawndra Washington, PharMD
Osemwengie Enabulele, MS4
Abdulkareem Agunbiade, MD
Ashley Y. Williams, MD
Marian A. Sampson, MD, FACOG
Ndang N. Azang-Njaah, MD, MPH
Amanda Ocran, MD
Ajayi Scott-Robinson, MS3
Adeola Oni-Orisan, MD, PhD
Carolyn Cook, MS3
Uzoh E. Ikpeama, MD
Kristen Bishop, MD
Jasmine S. Woods, PharMD
Abena Apraku, MD
Roshawnda Brown, MD
LeRanna Hatcher, MD
Zeke J. McKinney, MD, MHI, MPH, FACOEM
Alison Bell, DPM
Yolanda Markley, DVM
Caitlyn Johnson, MS-2
Jaime C. Thony, DDS
Jo’Ann Jackson, MD
Beverly Aiyanyor, MD
Rachael Dean, MD
Janeiro Achibiri, MD
Oluwamuye Akinbote, MD
Caroline Levine, MD
Nneoma O. Onyedimma, MS4
Johanny Lopez Dominguez, MS
Shanique Wilson, MD
DeAna Augustus, PharMD
Onika A. Popo-James, DO
Chioma Ezenduka, PharMD
Eno Oshin, MD
Terrill C. Turner Jr., MS4
Destini A. Smith, MD
Messan D Folivi, MD, MHS
Tiffany Russ, DO, MS
Sommer Gripper, MD
Edwin McDonald, MD
Misha Armstrong, MD, MPH
Beatrice Whitaker, MD
Oludamilola A. Aladesanmi, MD, MPH
Laura J. Quint, MD
Erica Joseph, MD
Ebony Caldwell, MD, MPH
Joshua J. Montgomery, MPH
Tori Robinson, MD
Betel Yibrehu, MD
Omonigho Ekhomu, MD
Mia Singleton Ben, MD
Vanica Guignard, MD
Adrianna Browne, MD
Brittney M. Richardson, MD, CAQSM
Ciana Maxwell, MD
Camille Imbo, MD
Liset Falcon, MS1
Pamela Lacy, MD, FACOG Ijeoma Opara, MD
Tiffany Scott, MD
Kendrick Law, MD
Laureano Andrade Vicenty, MS4
Chioma Ojiaku, DO
Yemisi Adejumo, MD
Keia V. Faison, MD
Renee Mickens, PharMD
Shanika D. Rutledge, MD
Kristen Medley, MS4
Gia N. Garrett, MD
Gashaw Adugna Dadi, MD
Rasheeda Monroe, MD
Joelle Jean-Jacques, OD
Ariba Khan, MD, MPH
Trevor Bailey, DO
Claudine Nwadiozor, OMS1
Destiny Kellam, MS3
Tracie Collins, MD
William E. Norris, MD, FACG
Malcolm Chelliah, MD
Cortney Cabell, MD
Jessica Bedele, OMS3
Chinedu Diokpa, PharMD
Keyanna Jackson, MS1
Lauren Tucker, MD
Giresse Melone, MS4
Olga Diaz, MD
Charis N. Chambers, MD
Karl Mereus, PharmD, MS
Kelli Outlaw, MD
Ruthline Myers, PharMD
Kristy Whyte, MD
Lawrence Self, Jr, MS2
Adia Stokes, MD
Sonja Thompson, PharMD
Michael Kongnyuy, MD
Michael I. Anyanwu, OMS1
Sherrette B. Shaw Fontenot, MD
Frederick Okoye III, MS3
Ayodeji J. Omosule, MD
Woodly Dominique, MS1
Erica L. Smith, PharMD
Modupe Oladele, MD
Annika Barnett, MD
Nicholé D. Liggins, MD
Kristy L. Cromblin, MD
Tekiyah A. Shabazz, MS3
Nche Zama, MD, PhD
Nikki Graves, MD
Brielle Miles, MS3
Kolade M. Agboola, MD
Shanice A. McKenzie, MD
Charles Harris III, MD
Zoe A. Stallings, MD
Eunice Saint-Victor, MS3
Amber L. Glenn, MD
Kamille Brown, MD
Jillian Diuguid-Gerber, MD
Shekinah N. C. Elmore, MD, MPH
Deneshia McIntosh, MD, PhD
Stephanie Garrison, MD
Ifeoma Kamalu, MS Aja’ E Pollard, MD
Olasupo Adedapo, MD
Olamide Adedeji Alakija, MD
Sylvia Cardounell, MD
RonalDO Nuesi, MS4
Claudia Nkeih, DO
Nicole Christian Brathwaite, MD
Rochelle Goring, MD
Sandria T. Vernon, MD, MPH
Kendrick V. Kennedy, MD
Bethlehem Belachew, MD
Adeoti Oshinowo, MD
Corey D. Boggs, MS4
Veronica Andrews, MD
Ulysses Gardner, MS4
Sara Balla, MS4
Aquila Ingram, PharMD
Toiya Turknett, MD
Shalisa Garner, DDS
Oluwatosin Onibokun, MD
Candace Grisham, MS1
Juliana N. Anyanwu, MD, MPH
Irving M. Allen, MD
Jamecia L. Finnie, MS, MD
Brianna Ennis, MD
Kali Hobson, MD
Larissa AssamLari, MD, MPH
Jeffanne Millien, MD
Kristen Solomon, MD
Oluwatoyin Weaver, MD
Shaquana Y. Clark, MD
Jovans Lorquet, MD
Ima M. Ebong, MD
Danielle Robinson, MD
Ocheowelle Okeke, MD
Christina Council, MD
Ngafla Bakayoko, MS2
Vonne Jones, MD, FACOG
Nathanaelle Ibeziako, MA, MS4
Donna L. Kiel, MD
Chinwe Sonia Kpaduwa, MD
Karri E Hester, MD
Charnise Taylor, MS3
Olivia Nwankwo, MD
Lesley L. Williams, MD
Elicia L. Harris, MD
LeAnn Louis, MS4
Uzoamaka Agubokwu, MD
Alexandra Campbell, MD
Beth-Ann Ollivierre-Baptiste, MD
Chelsea Wilson, DMD
Maureen W. Kimani, MD
Elesa Yihdego, OMS4
Stanitia W. Davis, DPM
Ophelia Garmon-Brown, MD, MDiv
Wilnise Jasmin, MD, MBA, MPH
Priscilla Clark, MD
Chioma Unegbu-Ogbonna, MD
Kimiko J. Moore, MD
Timothy S. Frazier, MD
Saudia McCarley, MD
Jada McMahon, MS1
Beryl Kalul, MD
Cassandre Perard, DO, MS
Erkeda DeRouen, MD
Farah McCorvey-Lofton, MD
Jimmy Berthaud, MD, MPH
Tiffany E. Hardaway, MD, MS
Jovans Lorquet, MD
Margia Ambroise, MD
Tamika Webb-Detiege, MD
Sanlaré C. Gordon, DO
Mario David Felix, MD
Ayanna C. Bradshaw-Sydnor, DDS, MPH
Kehinde Idowu, MD
Richalle Sullivan, MD
Rochelle Arbuah-Aning, MD
Daniel Ortiz, MD
Circe Lassegue, DDS
Maria Rodriguez, OMS-1
Juana Hutchinson-Colas, MD
Ciera D. P. Williams, PharmD, RPh
Nicole Woodson-DeFauw, MD
Lindsay Smith, DDS
Edna Buckle, DDS, OMFS
Ash Patel, DO, OMS1
Olusimidele Ayeni, MD, PhD
Hilary E. Toole, MD
Angela Renee Ingram, MD
Dwan Mabry, MD
Italo M. Brown, MD, MPH
Aiesha S. Hill, DPM
Pierre Detiege, MD
Brittney Morning, MS3
Robin Jacquet-Williams, MD
Corliss J. Furbert, DDS, MPH
Clifford Adam Jr., MS1
Patrick I. Emelife, MD
Duran Mitchell, MD
Jordan Jackson, MS2
Nia Bodrick MPH, MD
Ericka Scott, MS2
Apryl Mensah, MD
Haley Cabiness, MD
Bridgette Jones, MD
Hawwa Alao, MD
Obehi Asemota, MD
Yewande Samuel, PharMD
Susan M. Heineck, MD
Princess Ogidi, MD, MS2
DiAnne Davis, MD
Christel Wekon-Kemeni, MD
Soyini Hawkins, MD, MPH, FACOG
Russell J. Ledet, PhD, MS3
Angela M. Davis, DDS
Kiara Cribb, PharMD
Allanda Williams, DO
Omoye Blue, MD
Stéphanie Thomas, DDS
Letticia Guzman, PharMD
Myschelle Jones, MS3
Tasnim Hussein, MS3
Jillene Brathwaite, DO
Kayla S. Harris, PharMD
Ola Otulana, DO
Ugochukwu N. Udogwu, MD
Cassandra Pierre, MD, MSc
Alexis Irby, DMD
Samantha Etienne, MD
Sandy Dorcelus, DO
Tekira Hypolite, DMD
Whitney Morgan, MD
Crystal L. Parks, DO
Mariam Keita, DO
Chioma Nwonu, OMS2
Mana Kasongo, MD, MS
Faryka Rogers, DVM
Georgia Davies, MD
Adebayo Adunbarin, DO
Ronnie Otieno, OMS IV
Raleke O Adibe, DO
Keri-Lee A. Garel, MD
Fayola Edwards-Ojeba, MD
Sidney Owen, MS
S. Willis, DDS
Brianna M. Johnson, MS4
Crystal Johnson, MPH, DVM, DACLAM
Judy L Greene, MD
Nicholas Scoulios, MD
Samantha A. McIntosh, MD
Ife Anachebe, PharMD
Kristin J. Williams, MS4
Marshala R. Lee, MD, MPH
Ondreia J. Hunt, MD
Kristen Gumbs, DVM
StarKayla Lewis, MS2
Alexander Williams Jr., PharMD
Kelsey Murry, OMS4
Ceazón T. Edwards, MD
Oluwamuyiwa Awodiya, MS3
Jennifer Anderson, MS, OD
Angela B. Koomson, MS1
Ucheoma Nwaogwugwu, MD
Coty Tunwar, PharMD
Chidinma Nwakanma, MD
Dawn Kamilah Brown, MD
Chimdiya Onwukwe, G1
Charles P Williams, MD
Sarada Abraham, MD
Beteal Ashinne, MD, MPH
Alyssa B Watkins, MD
Ives A. Valenzuela, MD
Sasha Ray, MD
Brijae Chavarria, MD, MA
Richard Cook, MD
Joan K. Marc, MD
Yejide Adewunmi, DO
Prisca Kbe, MD
Melina Y. Zuniga, MD
Crystal A. Beal, PharMD
Denise McCormack, MD, MPH

Black Neurosurgeons Statement

Statement by Black Neurosurgeons

To our Patients, Colleagues, and the Global Community at Large,

Most recently, in the setting of continued efforts to respond to COVID-19 as a widespread and global pandemic, the nation has been rocked by the brutal murder of George Floyd, a Black man, by a White police officer in the audience of the public and other police officers representing the Minneapolis Police Department. Our hearts and minds are also heavy with thoughts of those who have recently lost their lives, like Ahmaud Arbery and Breonna Taylor, who are part of a long list dating back to and before the murders of Michael Brown in 2014 and Eric Garner in 2016. The cries of outrage reflected in the most recent days of protest and unrest reflect another insidious pandemic of grave public health consequence we have yet to curtail or respond to as a society at large.

Speaking as Black constituents within the field of neurosurgery, we are in the unique position to speak up and against cyclical and imminent public health threats to the Black community, fiercely and persistently. We are adding our voices in solidarity with medical institutions like the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), National Medical Association (NMA), American Medical Association (AMA), and American Heart Association (AHA), that assert excessive use of police force and violence is a public health issue.

We, as neuroscientists and surgeons, see firsthand the effects of neurotrauma on those subjected to violence at especially alarming rates in the Black community. Blunt and penetrating trauma to the brain and spine may result in hemorrhage, stroke, or both; disabling spinal fractures and dislocation; and, in some cases recurrent surgical procedures resulting in prolonged hospital stays and extended rehabilitation. For those who do not face death at the initial encounter, they face disability, often long-term. This heightens economic insecurity – taking them out of a workforce in which they are already battling unemployment or underemployment at disproportionate rates. Ultimately, this widens the socioeconomic gap, increases the number of those uninsured in the Black community, and compounds the lack of access to adequate and complete healthcare.

Moreover, there are intangible neuropsychological effects stemming from fearing for one’s life on a daily basis, mourning the sudden and inexplicable loss of a loved one to such violence, or simply being a Black person facing perennial reminders that we are not welcome in some parts of a society that has given us a conditionally approved position at best and a permanent second class citizen rank at worst. This intangible mental anxiety and stress invariably exacerbates underlying pathology. As a result, there is a demonstrable increase in preventable conditions, such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and a negative effect on the management, treatment, and outcome of other neurosurgical disorders.

As neurosurgeons and as public servants, we hold ourselves accountable – individually and collectively – to provide services upholding the standard of care we pledged to in our profession. Every patient has the right to receive that level of care no matter what surgeon they encounter or what bias that surgeon may have. This binding and reasonable contract in its simplest form is what is being asked of law enforcement today. We submit this statement as a promise to find and support actionable items that guarantee the march toward the arc of equality and accountability in how Black people are policed.

There is a slow but inevitable erosion of the state of health amongst Black people as a result of the aforementioned numerous struggles we encounter doggedly and simultaneously. This has culminated in a public health crisis shortening not only the lives of too many too early but diminishing the quality of life of those who remain to bear it.

In Solidarity,

Organizers

Nnenna Mbabuike, MD

William W. Ashley, Jr., MD, Ph.D., M.B.A., FAANS 

Edjah K. Nduom, MD, FAANS

Correspondence can be sent to: amsobns@gmail.com  

Contributors

Aaron Palmer MD
Adedamola Adepoju MD
Akwasi Ofori Boah, MD
Alexander Oderhowho MD
Arnett Klugh III MD, FAANS
Arnold Etame MD, PhD, FAANS
Arnold Obungu MD
Ayobami Ward, MD
Babu G. Welch, MD, FAANS
Bethwel Raore, MD, FAANS
Bradley Stephens, MD, MPH
Brenton Pennicooke, MD, MS
Byron Hills, MD
Chine Sp. Logan, DO, MS, MHA, FACS.
Clifford Pierre, MD
Danielle Terrell, MD, MPH
Dare Adewumi MD
David A. Paul, MD, MS
David Dadey, MD, PhD
David O. Okonkwo, MD, PhD, FAANS
Desmond A. Brown, MD, PhD
Dominique Higgins, MD,PhD
Edwin Kulubya MD
Efrem M. Cox, MD
Emun Abdu MD, FAANS
Ernest J. Barthélemy MD, MA, MPH

Fatu S. Conteh, MD
Gabriel E. Hunt, Jr., MD, FAANS
H. Westley Phillips, MD
Hudin N. Jackson, MD
Ian T. McNeil, MD, MS
Idara Edem MD, M.Sc, FRCSC
Jean Louis Benae MD, FAANS, FICS
Jihad Abdelgadir, MD, MSc
John Berry-Candelario, MD
Jos’lyn Woodard, MD, MAT
Joshua A. Spear, MD
Kaine Onwuzulike, MD, PhD, FACS
Kendrick Johnson, MD
Kenneth L. Hill Jr., MD, FAANS
Keyne Johnson, MD, FAANS
Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, MD
Langston Holly, MD
Larry R. Shannon II, MD, FAANS
Lindsey Ross, MD
Louis Nkrumah, MD, PhD
Marcus Gates, MD
Marcus L. Ware, MD, PhD, FAANS
Mark Attiah MD, MS, MPH
Matthew N. Anderson, MD
Michael Opoku-Darko MD, MSc.
Miracle C Anokwute, MD

Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, MD
Nduka Amankulor, MD, FAANS
Nelson M Oyesiku, MD, PhD, FACS
Olabisi Sanusi, MD
Olaide O Ajayi, MD
Oludotun O. Ogunsola MD, M.P.H
Oluwaseun O. Akinduro MD
Oluwaseun Omofoye, MD, M.S.
Owoicho Adogwa MD, MPH
Remi Wilson, MD
Rory Goodwin, MD, PhD
Saint-Aaron Morris, MD
Samuel K. Asante, MD
Sandea Greene-Harris, MD, FAANS
Shawn Hervey-Jumper, MD
Sherise Ferguson, MD
Solomon M Ondoma, MD
Sonia V Eden, MD
Stephen E. Griffith, MD, FAANS
Tiffany Hodges, MD
Travis CreveCoeur, MD
Venita Simpson, MD
Wesley King, MD, FAANS
William Humphries MD, MPH
William T. Curry, Jr., MD
Yaw Sarpong MD, MBA
Yusef I. Mosley MD

Write an Op-Ed for PfCJR for Our March Newsletter

Write an Op-Ed

THE TOPIC

Attorney General William P. Barr has supported an expansion of mandatory minimum sentences for drug crimes involving fentanyl analogues that some have dubbed “The “New War on Drugs.”

THE QUESTION

Should the US government expand minimum sentencing penalties on fentanyl analogues? Would it actually help reduce illicit drug use? What inadvertent effects might it have on marginalized communities?

OP-ED CRITERIA

  • Respond to this month’s prompt
  • Writer must be a paid member of PfCJR
  • Remain under 750 words
  • Share your perspective on the topic
  • Due by March 15, 2020

Submit Piece

        » Send here

Background

NANCY GERTNER: William Barr’s New War on Drugs

The Washington Post: Attorney General William P. Barr’s support for an expansion of mandatory minimum sentences for federal drug crimes involving fentanyl analogues should come as no surprise given his long record of hawking incarceration as a solution to our drug crisis. We have seen this movie before; it does not end well.

READ MORE >

SADIE GURMAN: Will William Barr Revive the 1990s Tough-on-Crime Approach?

The Wall Street Journal: William Barr’s vision of law and order was forged at the height of the 1990s crack epidemic, when the DC consensus was that long mandatory sentencing was the best way to fight crime. Since then, bipartisan support has shifted toward more lenient punishments and alternatives. Mr. Barr is signaling that the views defining his first stint in the role may be changing.

READ MORE >

Not sure how to write an op-ed?

Check out this op-ed training webinar! It provides tips for writing effective and engaging op-eds, specifically with regard to health care and physicians issues.

This webinar was co-hosted by one of our partners, Doctors For America, and Families USA.

Click here to watch the webinar.

Have any other questions? Reach us at our social media or the email contact listed below.

Write an Op-Ed for PfCJR for Our February Newsletter

Write an Op-Ed

THE TOPIC

The Second Look Amendment Act: a proposed bill which expands eligibility for sentence review to all those who committed crimes before age 25 and have served at least 15 years in prison.

THE QUESTION

Would the Second Look Amendment Act help or harm the criminal justice system? If passed, what effects would the bill have on public health and juvenile justice?

OP-ED CRITERIA

  • Writer must be a paid member of PfCJR
  • Remain under 750 words
  • Answer this month’s question
  • Share your perspective on the topic
  • Due by February 28, 2020

Submit Piece

        » Send here

Background

JAMES FORMAN JR: Justice Sometimes Needs A Do-Over

The Washington Post: Forman Jr. argues that the Second Look Amendment Act “offers a promising corrective to the harsh — and ineffective — practices once commonplace in courthouses across America. The bill gives the D.C. Council a chance to restore a measure of fairness to a criminal system often lacking it. If the council is willing to embrace reason over fearmongering, I am confident the Second Look Amendment Act will be recognized as another proud accomplishment.”

READ MORE >

THE POST: D.C. Has Gone Too Far on Justice Reforms

The Washington Post: The Post argues that the Second Look Act would be harmful to the criminal justice system. “Out the window would go transparency and truth in sentencing — the assurance to victims and the community that punishment is what it appears to be. By discouraging judges from considering the original crime when they weigh reducing sentences, the council is putting the public at increased risk, unnecessarily.”

READ MORE >

Not sure how to write an op-ed?

Check out this op-ed training webinar! It provides tips for writing effective and engaging op-eds, specifically with regard to health care and physicians issues.

This webinar was co-hosted by one of our partners, Doctors For America, and Families USA.

Click here to watch the webinar.

Have any other questions? Reach us at our social media or the email contact listed below.

Write an Op-Ed for PfCJR for Our February Newsletter

Write an Op-Ed

THE TOPIC

In the recent protests, military and police officers have been using rubber bullets, tear gas, and other forms of force against peaceful protestors.

THE QUESTION

What are the short-term and long-term health impacts of rubber bullets and tear gas? What repercussions might this have on public health at large?

OP-ED CRITERIA

  • Writer must be a paid member of PfCJR
  • Remain under 750 words
  • Answer this month’s question
  • Share your perspective on the topic
  • Due by January 19, 2020

Submit Piece

        » Send here

Background

PROTESTS ABOUT POLICE BRUTALITY ARE MET WITH WAVE OF POLICE BRUTALITY ACROSS U.S.

The Guardian: “The nationwide anti-police brutality protests sparked by the killing of George Floyd in the US have been marked by widespread incidents of police violence, including punching, kicking, gassing, pepper-spraying and driving vehicles at often peaceful protesters in states across the country. The actions have left thousands of protesters in jail and injured many others, leaving some with life-threatening injuries.”

READ MORE >

COLUMBUS LOOKS INTO DEATH OF OHIO STATE GRAD WHO ATTENDED DOWNTOWN PROTESTS

The Lantern: “The city of Columbus is reviewing the death of an Ohio State graduate who died after being exposed to chemical agents while attending protests in downtown Columbus, Ohio. The city of Columbus is looking into possible connections with Columbus protests and Grossman’s death, according to a tweet from the city Wednesday. The city also said the Columbus Fire Department does not have a record of emergency medical services transporting her to any area hospitals.”

 

READ MORE >

Not sure how to write an op-ed?

Check out this op-ed training webinar! It provides tips for writing effective and engaging op-eds, specifically with regard to health care and physicians issues.

This webinar was co-hosted by one of our partners, Doctors For America, and Families USA.

Click here to watch the webinar.

Have any other questions? Reach us at our social media or the email contact listed below.

Open Leadership Positions

Open Leadership Positions

Physicians for Criminal Justice Reform is seeking physicians to fill open leadership positions on our team. Available positions include:

  • Finance Committee Chair
  • Research Committee Chair
  • Partner Organization Liaison
  • Local Community Organizer
For Medical Students:
 
  • Finance Committee Assistant
  • Research Committee Assistant
  • Membership Committee Assistant
  • Local Organizing Assistant

All positions:

  • Offer the opportunity to work with an engaged leadership team and established physician-activists on the most critical civil rights issue of our time
  • Are unpaid volunteer positions
  • Require a minimum commitment of 1 year

Want to apply for a position?

Responsibilities

Taskforce Directors/Assistant Directors:

  • Work with the Membership Committee to recruit members and fellows to the Taskforce
  • Work with the Research Committee to generate at least one white paper per quarter from their Taskforce 
  • Identify 3 experts within their Taskforce to become members of the PfCJR Speakers Bureau (see more) 
  • Identify 3 experts within their Taskforce to become members of the PfCJR Writers Bureau (see more) 
  • Provide the Public Relations Committee with links to Speakers Bureau events, Op-Eds, announcements of new partnerships, relevant content for posting across media platforms
  • Identify and engage at least 1 new partner organization and partner liaison in the first year, and maintaining those relationships thereafter
  • Report status/progress of the Taskforce at each Board Meeting 
  • Implement other initiatives that advocate reform on the assigned Core Issue as appropriate

Committee Chairs

  • Become a member either of the Speakers Bureau or Writers Bureau
  • Engage committee members each month by providing Taskforce Updates for the PfCJR monthly newsletter 
  • Hold committee meetings no less than quarterly to update and report progress on initiatives 
  • Provide the Social Media Committee with links to relevant content for posting across media platforms
  • Contribute a Committee Update to the Quarterly PfCJR Newsletter
  • Report status/progress of the Committee at each Board Meeting 
  • Implement other initiatives that advocate reform on Core Issues as appropriate 

TaskForce/Committee Descriptions

Finance Committee

The Finance Committee, chaired by the PfCJR Treasurer, is responsible for managing and monitoring the fiscal activities of PfCJR including accounting for revenues and expenditures, developing an annual budget, providing monthly budget reports to the Board of Directors, filing taxes annually and ensuring compliance with all laws and regulations for 501c3 organizations.

Research Committee

The Research Committee is responsible for identifying and centralizing research related to PfCJR’s Core Issues by disseminating findings to the PfCJR membership and public, and supporting Taskforces and Partner Liaisons with literature searches and white papers on Core Issues.

Archive of Past Op-Ed Topics

January 2020

THE TOPIC:

Joe Biden vs. Cory Booker on criminal justice reform and decriminalization of marijuana

THE QUESTION:

Why is decriminalization of marijuana an important issue in criminal reform? How do Biden and Booker’s different platforms address this issue?

BOOKER: Argues Joe Biden was ‘architect’ of criminal justice system

Politico: “Sen. Cory Booker on Tuesday blamed Joe Biden for what he called a “failed” criminal justice system, dismissing the former vice president’s new plan to combat mass incarceration and escalating a weeks-long dispute between the pair.” Booker argues that his plan is more “comprehensive” and capable of creating “transformative change.”

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BIDEN: Scrutinized for Crime Bill, Unveils Plan to Reduce Mass Incarceration

New York Times: “Joseph R. Biden Jr., whose long record on criminal justice matters has cast a shadow over the early months of his presidential campaign, has unveiled a comprehensive plan aimed at combating mass incarceration and reducing “racial, gender and income-based disparities in the system.” 

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February 2020

THE TOPIC:

The Second Look Amendment Act: a proposed bill which expands eligibility for sentence review to all those who committed crimes before age 25 and have served at least 15 years in prison.

THE QUESTION:

Would the Second Look Amendment Act help or harm the criminal justice system? If passed, what effects would the bill have on public health and juvenile justice?

JAMES FORMAN JR: Justice Sometimes Needs A Do-Over

The Washington Post: Forman Jr. argues that the Second Look Amendment Act “offers a promising corrective to the harsh — and ineffective — practices once commonplace in courthouses across America. The bill gives the D.C. Council a chance to restore a measure of fairness to a criminal system often lacking it. If the council is willing to embrace reason over fearmongering, I am confident the Second Look Amendment Act will be recognized as another proud accomplishment.”

READ MORE >

THE POST: D.C. Has Gone Too Far on Justice Reforms

The Washington Post: The Post argues that the Second Look Act would be harmful to the criminal justice system. “Out the window would go transparency and truth in sentencing — the assurance to victims and the community that punishment is what it appears to be. By discouraging judges from considering the original crime when they weigh reducing sentences, the council is putting the public at increased risk, unnecessarily.”

READ MORE >

Not sure how to write an op-ed?

Check out this op-ed training webinar! It provides tips for writing effective and engaging op-eds, specifically with regard to health care and physicians issues.

This webinar was co-hosted by one of our partners, Doctors For America, and Families USA.

Click here to watch the webinar.

Have any other questions? Reach us at our social media or the email contact listed below.

The right to healthcare: A false promise of health in America’s prisons

Last month’s coverage of the conditions at Riker’s Island have people across the country appalled. Dr. Vernier, former physician at Riker’s Island, shared many of his experiences with patients at the prison with NPR, describing the horrific case of Carlos Mercado, who died within 15 hours of arriving at the prison due to complications of his diabetes. He had been denied insulin during the intake process.

Prisoners are the only people in the country with a constitutional right to healthcare, under the 1976 Supreme Court Estelle v. Gamble decision, which held that withholding healthcare from prisoners constituted “cruel and unusual punishment,” prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. But isn’t the case of Carlos Mercado grounds for “cruel and unusual punishment?” The right to healthcare seems to be a false promise at Riker’s, especially when we consider the facility’s history.

Riker’s is notorious for cruelty and inhumane treatment of prisoners. Earlier in de Blasio’s appointment as city mayor, a 2014 report from U.S. attorney Preet Bharara detailed graphic human rights abuses and use of violence against adolescent males placed at Riker’s Island. One such account from 2012 reads:

“…Inmate F, a mentally impaired inmate, was repeatedly punched in the face by an officer who has been involved in well over 20 other RNDC use of force incidents. Although the officer admitted that he delivered multiple blows to the inmate’s face, the Department concluded that the force used was appropriate based on the officer’s contention that he was acting in self-defense… There is no video of the incident…

…Inmate F reported that the officer challenged him to a one-on-one fight… According to DOC records, the officer was involved in a total of 24 use of force incidents… from 2007 through early 2013, including eight incidents in 2012 alone. He also has been subject to repeated disciplinary actions.”

Unfortunately, these human rights violations persist not just at Riker’s, but as an inherent part of the nation’s correctional system. Earlier this year, approximately 1,600 prisoners at the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn were left with sporadic heating and no lighting over the course of multiple days. Families were left completely in the dark about the fact that their loved ones were suffering in the facility. No generators were powered on to restore lights and heating as detainees pounded on the windows in retaliation to being left to freeze.

There are physical health consequences of being unable to read your medication labels in the dark. However, more latent are the mental health repercussions when prisoners realize they are not just trapped, but that there is nobody to even allow them their basic rights or human dignity. The right to healthcare applies to mental as well as physical health. We need to take a close look at outcomes to truly assess whether the right to healthcare is upheld in prisons or not.

The capacity for cities like New York to harm people through incarceration is vast, and there is a poor track record of tangible benefit coming from imprisonment for those detained nationwide. In 2016, the Avid Prison Project described that solitary confinement routinely exacerbates symptoms for those with mental illness. Moreover, inmates with psychiatric needs are put on waiting lists for hospital treatment much too often, even when hundreds of beds are available. It seems that the right to healthcare is a promise to take two leaps back for every small step forward.

Broken policies that keep the mentally-ill from receiving care in prisons can change. We can start by re-routing those with mental health needs from prisons to programs focused on healing and reintegration for the 42% of inmates at Riker’s Island who suffer from mental illness. Instead of reverting to punishment-based criminal justice, we can transform the lives of those in prison and reduce incarceration rates by expanding proven alternatives to incarceration.

In particular, we should expand New York’s assertive community treatment (ACT) programs for those with mental illness. Programs like Manhattan ACT bring holistic treatment and therapy to those with mental illness who face incarceration due to a felony arrest directly to them in their communities. Manhattan ACT itself has seen a 36% decrease in psychiatric hospitalizations among program participants in Northern Manhattan. In addition to their mental health benefits, ACT programs have also reduced recidivism rates. Nathaniel ACT’s graduates since 2014 have had no violent arrests within one year of graduation and its graduates since 2013 had no new felony convictions within two years. ACT programs turn lives around and are one just solution to the crisis of housing the mentally-ill in federal and state prisons.

The right to healthcare is one of prisoners’ civil rights, protected under the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution. However, if prisoners are delayed necessary treatment and placed in conditions that worsen their health problems, then this right is far from being upheld seriously. With 45% of federal prisoners having mental health or behavioral problems, we need to expand evidence-based alternatives to incarceration like ACT programs and work with our communities instead of against them.

Syed Kaleem is a medical student at Drexel University College of Medicine. He is a fellow of Physicians for Criminal Justice Reform. @ZaneKaleem on Twitter

Petition to require that all police officers go through racial bias training

Physicians for Criminal Justice Reform, Inc. (www.pfcjreform.org) is calling for the federal government to require Implicit Racial Bias Training for police departments nationwide as a condition of eligibility for federal grant funding.

PLEASE CLICK HERE TO SIGN THE PETITION.  We need 100,000 signatures in the next 30 days at which time the White House will respond to our request, which means this petition must go viral.  Please help us make that happen.

At least 9 people were killed last week as a result of our policing crisis. CDC data shows that Native Americans, Blacks, and Latinos are killed during police interactions at higher rates than Whites. Perceived criminality and implicit racial bias are significant drivers of this problem.

Research shows that police who are made aware of their implicit biases are motivated and able to implement unbiased policing behavior.

The federal government should immediately require all police departments to implement implicit racial bias training for their officers.

PLEASE CLICK HERE TO SIGN THE PETITION.

Implicit Bias and Law Enforcement

Racial profiling has been an obvious point of contention between law enforcement and minority group members. Over the past decade, the term “bias-based policing” has been coined, and the subject has been the topic of much research and debate. It often paints the picture of ill-intentioned officers deliberately acting upon preconceived stereotypes and prejudices. What if, perhaps, there was another answer?

In the spring of 2010, professor Jerry Kang from the UCLA School of Law presented to Connecticut judges, prosecutors, public defenders, and police administrators on the topic of implicit, or hidden, bias. His talk shed light on what has become an increasingly popular subject in social science circles. In brief, researchers contend that implicit biases are predilections held by all that operate largely outside of one’s awareness. Although hidden, these biases are both pervasive and powerful.1 Much research on the topic has focused on racial bias and has netted some intriguing results.

While the science does have its detractors, the growing research and potential implications for the criminal justice field make this a topic with which all law enforcement personnel should be familiar. The reader may find this article to be interesting, provocative, and enlightening—or some combination of the three. The purpose of this piece is to raise awareness on a topic that is growing in popularity and that has begun to emerge in the criminal justice system. It is up to readers to decide whether the science is relevant and pertinent to their lives and their workplaces.

The article discusses implicit bias, the latest testing and research into the phenomenon, and practical approaches for law enforcement interventions as recommended by social scientists in the field.

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